1999

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Use of thermal analysis information in avionics equipment development

September 1st, 1999

IEEE Standard 1332-1998 [IEEE 1998] requires that, “The [equipment] supplier shall determine the customer’s requirements and product needs,” and that, “The [equipment] supplier, working with the customer, shall include the activities necessary to ensure that…read more

Thermal design of fault tolerant and high availability computer systems

September 1st, 1999

Thermal Design is one of the most challenging aspects of computer system design. This is definitely the case when it comes to designing for “fault tolerance” and “high availability” in high-speed multiprocessor-based systems. The inherent…read more

The thermal conductivity of ceramics

September 1st, 1999

Ceramics are increasingly used in packages and printed circuit boards, because they have a number of advantages over plastics: much higher thermal conductivity, possible match of the coefficient of thermal expansion, and hermetic sealing. Unfortunately,…read more

High performance thermal management materials

September 1st, 1999

Various new advanced composite materials are now available, which provide great advantages over conventional materials for electronic packaging thermal control, including: Extremely high thermal conductivities (up to twice that of copper) Low, tailorable coefficients of…read more

Determining the junction temperature in a plastic semiconductor package, part II

September 1st, 1999

In the majority of applications involving plastic surface-mount packages, most of the heat generated by integrated circuits will flow to the printed circuit board (PCB) by way of the package leads and then to In…read more

Design and reliability considerations in avionics electronics packaging

September 1st, 1999

In the avionics industry, regulatory agencies and standards organizations, such as Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) [1], Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) [2], and Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) [3], have developed sets of test procedures…read more

Adjusting temperatures for high altitude

September 1st, 1999

Many companies design products with electronics that must function reliably at high altitude, typically 1,500m (5,000 ft) or 3,000m (10,000 ft) above sea level. Estimating the increase in operating temperatures is necessary to design and…read more

Uncertainty analysis

May 1st, 1999

Uncertainty analysis is the process of estimating the uncertainty in a result calculated from measurements with known uncertainties. Uncertainty analysis uses the equations by which the result was calculated to estimate the effects of measurement…read more

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Thermal characterization of active components

May 1st, 1999

In the European project SEED (Supplier Evaluation and Exploitation of DELPHI), the methods for thermal characterization of active components developed in the predecessor DELPHI (Development of Libraries of PHysical models for an Integrated design environment)…read more

The thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide

May 1st, 1999

Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) is an important ceramic for the electronics industry. Besides its use as a passivation layer on Silicon, the ceramic is often used as a carrier for thick and thin film passive components…read more

Test methods for characterizing the thermal transmission properties of phase-change thermal interface materials

May 1st, 1999

All phase change thermal interface materials are designed to minimize the thermal resistance in an interface between a heat generating component and a heat sink. How well they achieve this goal in a specific application…read more

Heatsink attachment and thermal interface effects on production assembly and repair

May 1st, 1999

Today’s market offers many heatsink attachment and thermal interface options. Your design decisions usually aim to optimize product performance at minimum cost. Secondary effects, not always sufficiently considered, significantly impact production cost, delivery performance, and…read more

Heat pipe fundamentals

May 1st, 1999

The use of heat pipes in thermal management is increasing rapidly as power densities in electronics continue to rise. Heat pipes are attractive because they can typically carry 100 or more times as much heat…read more

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Determining the junction temperature in a plastic semiconductor package, part 1

May 1st, 1999

One of the primary tasks of the thermal engineer is to determine the temperature of the junction (active circuitry on an integrated circuit) for the various packages in a system. Measurements performed in the industry-standard…read more